Collective intelligence

From Faster Than 20

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Brooke Harrington's research on investment clubs: Investment clubs with members of both sexes noticeably outperformed men-only or women-only clubs.

Anita Woolley and Thomas Malone's research.

Credit Suisse's study of more than 2,500 companies: Companies with more than one woman on the board have outperformed those with no women on the board by 26 percent since 2005

Culture of Dissent

Brooke Harrington's research on investment clubs: More likely to openly debate each other’s ideas and let fewer investment proposals pass without dissent

Charlan Nemeth's 2003 research: debate condition leads to more creativity.


Need enough to create high trust + norms, but not so much that you prevent culture of dissent.

Brooke Harrington's research on investment clubs: Professional versus social bonds. "One of the things that can torpedo group performance is when people are too socially enmeshed with one another. They can become reluctant to really be direct and honest with one another."

Brian Uzzi's research on musicals

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