From Faster Than 20

3.5% Rule

Based on her research with Maria Stephan, Erica Chenoweth has posited that movements that achieve participation from 3.5% of the population almost always succeed, and that nonviolent movements are twice as effective as violent ones.[1][2]


  1. David Robson. "The '3.5% rule': How a small minority can change the world." The Guardian, May 13, 2019.
  2. Michelle Nicholasen. "Nonviolent resistance proves potent weapon." Harvard Gazette, February 4, 2019.